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19.02.03 15:44

Genetic "pantry" of Turkmenistan

Academician Nikolay Vavilov was the one who discovered genetic “pantry” of Turkmenistan

Not all of us know an origin of word "tomato". It means "golden apple”. Spanish conquistadors bring this surprising fruit to Europe from America which today is an integral part of kitchen of any country of the world. By the way, they invented nothing: an origin tomato in not red, but yellow. Therefore is was named gold.However, today nobody remembers the history, but when at the end of the80th tomato fields were paralyzed by various diseases, it was necessary to resume the "wild" past of tomato.

Genetic sources of golden fruit vegetable were found in Mexico and Peru, were cultivated and it become more persistent to diseases, stronger and is more tasty …The question is what is the connection between Turkmenistan and America? There is no any. The matter is that this example with tomato is still fresh, and scientist address to sources to correct the mistakes. And still it is necessary to notice that a tomato, as well as a potato became part of our menu. Of course there are more ancient components. And they probably need the greater degree of genetic support of "primogenitors".

Mountains of Turkmenistan are low - hardly up to 3 thousand meters. Not much water and the climate is severe - drying up heat in the summer and up to 20 degrees of a frost in the winter, no mater how warm is the weather on plain. But for some reasons the nature has concentrated here a number of endemic plants, i.e. such which do not meet anywhere in the world. Academician Nikolay Vavilov, who gone round the half-world in searches of wild ancestors of modern cereals was surprised, finding in imperceptible mountains of Turkmenistan ancestors of the majority of cultures cultivated nowadays - barley, millet and many others. It is no casual that here, in settlement os Karakala he has founded the institute of plant breeding of the Russian Academy of Science.

Many historical sources testify the same: Turkmenistan was one of the most ancient places were wild-growing cereals were cultivated; from here they "moved" to many other countries of the world. Nikolay Vavilova's merit is that he saw potential opportunities of this genetic pantry, which in the near future can become the most valuable fund for upbringing failing of earlier cultivated cultures. All cultures growing in Turkmen mountains were kept up to this day. If one climb on spring to Turkmen mountains he can see a sea of flowers many of which also are ancestors of that are raised today in gardens. There are also a surprising flower, which is not cultivated either by mistake, or owing to obstinate character. It was rather difficult to find out its name while the expert from botanic institute informed that it is "merendera Turkmen ", one of many endemics of Turkmenistan. It is impossible to describe what it is look like. On a low thin stalk - a nimbus of white petals up to blueness, and bitterish - fresh aroma, as a smell of the spring. Turkmenistan is already recognized as the fifth center of occurrence of the most ancient civilizations.

Probably, one of the reasons of becoming a center was that the material for origin of agriculture was direct under the foot - and our ancestors have managed to see and estimate it. Maybe the descendants should return to sources for fields cultivated by them have found the second life …

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